Western genre



Western, genre of short stories , novels ,motion pictures, radio and television are set the in the western part of America .This genre’s era was between 1850’s till the early 19th century . It did revive in the 20th century but dint gain as much popularity .


What are the western characteristics  that catches everyone attention ?
The most obvious one would be the costume of the cowboy .The main props the hat and the six-gun (pistole ) . I found the gun part also know as the” pacemaker ” a bit interesting and found out that there are some icon guns that are used .Colt Single Action Army,Winchester Model 1873 and Sharps Rifles. “The appearance of one distinctive gun that has long been viewed as the quintessential peacemaker, and that gun is the Colt Single Action Army, also known as the Colt 45 and the Colt M1873. Not all of our western pistols are the famous Colt, though” (Dark Knight Armoury 2016)
Another characteristics that stands out is the landscape . A typical western landscape would be a place surrounded  with tall mountains ,  desert , small villages /town a place where it’s very hot and the sun is shining . Dust is important as well .The village / small town will have small houses lot of stables and the most important place the bar .

camera angles

•Some of the camera angles that are used in a western include:
•Wide shots- The wide shot ( establishing shot because it show the setting ) show and tell a lot about the film .


•Tilt shots- this usually introduces the stranger,  sometimes going from the boots to the head. This can be used to have the character seen as intimidating . They use this shot to create curiosity and built up an interest for us audience . This shot can be used for the hero ,villain or a third person (side kick).
•Close-Up shots- can be used to emphasise drama and facial expression . It’s mostly used when two characters are having a conversation or having a face off .
•Extreme close-ups- usually on the characters eyes when in a duel, showing that they are prepared to fight.In westens it’s mostly the eyes or the sweat the is dripping  down the chin . The ECU on the eyes also show the concentration and show that the character might have a plan and he is thinking about it. If the eyes is really  focused on one object and the kind of relaxes and the character seems relaxed it might me he has a plan, the other character has done a silly  mistake and that could be the week target or the back up of his  fellow team mates have surrendered him so he is save
Like another  genre western movies also have sub genres and some of them are quite successful ones . I have pick  three sub genres and the movies that have stood out which managed to highlight the western genre again
sub genres
•Sci-fi western: Cowboys vs Aliens
Initial release: July 29, 2011 (USA)
  • Director: Jon Favreau
    Based on a graphic novel created by Scott Mitchell Rosenberg and written by Fred Van Lente and Andrew Foley.

    Actors – Daniel Craig  Harrison. Ford Olivia and  Wilde


•Western horror: Tremors
Initial release: January 19, 1990 (USA)
Director: Ron Underwood
Kevin Bacon
Fred Ward
Finn Carter
Michael Gross
Reba McEntire
•Western Comedy: Million ways to die in the west
Initial release: September 18, 2014 
Director: Seth MacFarlane
Seth MacFarlane
Alec Sulkin
Wellesley Wild
I havent watched Alien vs cowboy and Tremors but I have watched Million ways to die in the west . This movie has a typical hero villain story and how someone stands up to the villian . This movie has all the techniques I mentioned in the camera angles sections.The comedy in the movie is also a bit old stand up type , bur the costumes of the actors were proper westen costumes. The villlian gets a more dark coustume and the hero get the more light costume and the guns play an key role in the movie .
western was a new genre for me as well and exploring was a bir difficult but managed to get and explain as much of infromation I could understand and find . This genre is very diffrent because I felt this genre has very specific characteristics which not followed can changed the genre and it would not match the western theam anymore .

Reference list

















Gender Equality In America Today

Gender Equality In America Today

What are the roles of gender and how did it begin?

We wanted to explore the way that gender roles are seperatted and how it came about. At first we believed that the roles of gender were divided into what was physically possible for the way that men and women were built. Men were physically bigger and stronger and therefore naturally did things such as the hard labour which required a lot of physical stamina and strength for example cutting down trees, a trait women naturally didn’t begin with. Women were seen as more capable of smaller, less labour intensive jobs like cooking and cleaning. Men were always thought of as the more powerful and in charge sex.



We decided to research this and link it to the development of American society’s views on this and this is what we found: “A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviours are generally considered acceptable, appropriate or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sex.” We found this on Wikipedia and thought it related to our point of view on how it started.



As we understand it the gender roles were designed as something that was purely based on physicality, but As society grew and developed, we became more educated that in fact women and men are capable of doing the same tasks as one another and shouldn’t be divided, this is when we started to see change. According to this timeline that we have found, 1893 Colorado became the first state to allow women to vote. This already shows that women, while not nearly enough, were beginning to be looked at more seriously and were granted the acknowledgment to have their opinion be valued. After this, it only became more and more positive as other states were also granting the right for women to vote. You can view the full timeline here: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline1.html 

As we looked into this further we decided to find any videos on the right of women to vote and found a video on youtube. In the beginning it is very interesting and says “voting was considered a privilege not a right. Men could vote, women who owned property could vote, most didn’t “. This leads us to wonder why they would choose not to vote and we believe that in that time it was probably looked down upon for women to take charge and express their opinion, something that has carried on throughout the years, leading to gender inequality. The video then goes on to say that “after confederation in 1867 all women were excluded”. This is not surprising as most women who did have the right to vote didn’t, which suggests that not only did men look down upon women, women didn’t think highly of themselves. The video quotes from the bible that “The man was not made for the women but the women for the man”. In this time religion was very important and something almost everyone lived by and because of this the Christian views here was valued and seen as the only way to live by resulting in women being taken as the less powerful gender; “thy desire shall be to thy husband and he shall rule over thee”.


In the video it explains how the women’s rights movement began and says something that stood out to us, “that women’s suffrage was in with the times”.

Here is the full video:



As society grew and developed, we became more educated that in fact women and men are capable of doing the same tasks as one another and shouldn’t be divided, this is when we started to see change. According to this timeline that we have found, 1893 Colorado became the first state to allow women to vote. This already shows that women, while not nearly enough, were beginning to be looked at more seriously and were granted the acknowledgment to have their opinion be somewhat valued. After this, it only became more and more positive as other states were also granting the right for women to vote. You can view the full timeline here:  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline1.html


As our research grew we came across another video from youtube,it is a comedy skit making fun of the extreme ways women used to be treated, we found it to be very offensive as it makes fun of women and the fact that they were expected not to be smart and are only there for the men to use them, which links back to the history of women’s rights movement video and how they said the quote from the bible that the women were for the men.




After this video we researched how the role of women has changed through the years because we were interested in seeing just how much change has actually been made and found the website hub pages.com, here is the link to what we found: http://hubpages.com/education/change-in-roles-of-women. This blog tells us that there has been a noticeable change in the way that women are viewed ever since the 1960’s where feminism started being in the public eye. But it also states that although there has been change, there is still evidence of gender inequality around, “Nowadays women are generally treated equally to men although some would argue there is still a long way to go.” In our everyday world we noticed that this is clearly evident in the media that surrounds us that view women in a sexual manner and men are usually dominant. We found an advertisement of a hugely popular brand in the U.S. as well as all over the world. It is an advert for Kelvin Klein Jeans that was released in 2010 using well known celebrities:

As you can see here the man is dominating the women in a sexual way, showing they have more power in these situations,which once again links back to the quote “The man was not made for the women but the women for the man.” Here is a video that shows different adverts that sexualise women: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lXyCSsIOjU


Through our research we have concluded that although there has been change towards equality in the gender roles, the American society is still viewing the roles of women as less superior to men and change still needs to happen more evidently.


Films and merchandised


Films and merchandised

Film and merchandised has been around for decades. I’ll be sharing information on how did this business start what was the process and which were the highest grossing merchandised and their value till date.


There is a process that had to be followed and it two sides it first production company needs to have licence to do this. The producer/ distributors received advance payment for the products, second if the movie fails to the pull the products off the shelves and which means the producer loses money. This makes  merchandise  a game of chess a few wrong moves can lead to checkmate. The product expects a short shelve but there are some people who do collect them and today it could fetch them a future.


So which was the movie or the movies weresuccessful and sold out merchandise?

The Star- war trilogy really clicked at the box office and the merchandise were almost sold out. It didn’t have a very successful start with the first episode but later on along with Harry Potter series earned back the losses and today most of the toy collectors have Star War toys that they either brought paying a lot of money or some who were just lucky enough to find it in the attic. The first batman movie released in 1989 grossed over $250 million at the box office and $50 million more license it also had a successful sales price on its merchandise .Lord of the rings trilogy grossed over $1.2billion  compared to start wars trilogy that grossed over  $3.1 billion both these trilogy have successful selling merchandises .

Movies that sold merchandise and were successful at the same time?

1 Star War – 12 billion

Start war has been the longest running movie trilogy and is one of the most successful. Since Disney had bought the rights for star wars it boosted the sales even higher because it was tied up with Disney.






Cars – $10 billion

Cars Disney Pixar did shock the audience  its gross estimated to be around $244million and later on grossed $464million.





Frozen $.5.3

Again Disney frozen was almost an overnight blockbuster it grossed over $1.2billion and was the highest animated movie to gross this amount in that year.





These are just some of the merchandise that sold well and the movies did well at the box office. For limited additions there are only afew toys that are related to movie merchandise and those are the Star war limited action figures, Barbie and G.I Joe’s many collectors have managed to preserve such toys and if it’s a packed it’s even better and the value of the toy goes higher.


Overall exploring the marketing for merchandise was an interesting topic. I found a lot about the connection it has was the grossing amount, how do they make money ,how the revenue system works and how to get the proper license to be able to sell these merchandises














Growth of social media in the past decade

Growth of social media in the past decade

According to the Cambridge dictionary social media is “website and computer programs that allowed people to communicate and share information on the internet using a computer or a mobile phone. Today almost everyone is on a social media, if someone says that they aren’t on Facebook, twitter, snap chat or tumbler that doesn’t make them antisocial they’ll surely be using other forms of social media such as Gmail, Outlook, linked in and Skype to communicate .But what if we travel ten years back were there so many people active on these social networks? Did they even know such sites and apps existed?



MySpace and Facebook were launched and it shows how quickly Facebook gained it popularly and month after month it kept gaining more popular. Google had launch Gmail a social network that has grown over the years and has kept it going still. Flicker I didn’t know that app existed same goes for Yelp, DDIG and Mashable. We all are familiar with YouTube. This timeline also gives a brief history on how Facebook was only available for Harvard’s university and expanded for other universities when it reached 100million users and later was available in High schools in the united states this meant the it wasn’t global as yet . But later in 2006 it became popualr site and gained more popularity and was one of the fastest growing social network.

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2008 Facebooks becomes the most popular site and MySpace were surprised because they were launched before Facebook .MySpace was the one of the most popular sites until took over the spot .App store available via iTunes


2009 Twitter form the 22nd rank shots up to the 3rd heights spot on the most popular social network. The king of pop Michael Jackson passes away and the Twitter crashed after 100,000 tweets were sent per-hour .This shows how news is shared across the globe with the use of social media and the impact of it led to a wave of tweets.

WordPress the website we use to do our blogs reached over 202 million users.

These two years in particular shows the booming stage or rapid growth social networking sites .

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Twitter had been launched, Lady gaga became the first person (Living) to reach 10 million friends on face book and, she wasn’t the first over all it was the King of pop was the first person to reach 14 million. Facebook reached 500million active users. In less than 18 month after it had hit 200million active users .

According to PreResearch Centre’s survey on American young adult’s stats, young adults are more likely to use more of social media in the Line chat below it shows different age groups and there use of social media from 2006 to 2014.

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As you can see the all the age groups turn out to be active members as the year goes on. The age group from 18-29 have a jump start compared to other age groups is the due to web sites like Facebook was Allowed and introduced in high schools in the United states therefore it had a jump start and in 2006 it had more students age groups who were active users

According to the Statistic Portal  website .

“Leading social networks worldwide as of April 2016, ranked by number of active users (in millions)

This statistic provides information on the most popular networks worldwide as of April 2016, ranked by number of active accounts. Market leader Facebook was the first social network to surpass 1 billion registered accounts and currently sits at 1.59 billion monthly active users. Eighth-ranked photo-sharing app Instagram had over 400 million monthly active accounts. Meanwhile, blogging service Tumblr had more than 555 million active blog users on their site. ’’

The Top Social Networking sties today are?

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In conclusion everyday there is a new app tons of Facebook, twitter and Instagram accounts made the and the next decade the stats will be higher .While I was researching learnt about how the social Network industry runs how to the make it interesting how they gained so much of popularity . I also found out how facebook was developed and year after year how it made changes and today is top most used social networking site ever made.




















Film / television censorship in New Zealand

‘’The Office of Film & Literature Classification is the Government body responsible for classifying publications that may need to be restricted or banned in New Zealand’’(The OFLC). This was established under section 76 of the film and video and Publications Classification Act 1993 and been active since 1916.

How do they classify the content?

According to the public act 1993 No 94, date assent on 26 august 1993 commencement see section 1 .There are ten parts and over 177 sub points I’ll be just explain a few of them with the main key points from my understanding . I’ll to keep it as accurate as possible.

  • One of the main things would know what age group you are trying to target and what the purpose of the TV or movie
  • Does it include drugs, sex, action, offensive language, nudity and something that involve religious beliefs? (When you trying to add some of these category that I listed on the top you may also think about till what extend are your going to show all this and will it pass the censorship or will it be ban. Will if offend someone or someone’s beliefs and practices)?

Dose included clips of some other movie or TV show? Or music from an artist? (You’ll need permission to use it. If not taken proper rights it can lead to legal issues of copyrights act)

  • When you send your movie in for the OFLC to review and certify your film or TV show you’ll need to follow the procedure which takes time and for more information on this read the public act 1993 section 1 part 3 from point 12 to 46 it describes the process in detail .

The UMR (universal media reader) which is commissioned by the Classification Office carried out a survey 29/09/2016 on” New Zealanders want one classification system for movies, TV shows and games ’’. This is what the survey showed 


The doughnut chat shows a positive outcome about all the 3 mediums should have the same classification system. Over 1000 New Zealanders   who were did the survey we clear on having the same system and also applied it in cinemas, DVDs’ / Blue ray, online and TV. They would prefer it to see under the classifications which currently assigned under the Films, Videos and Publications Classification Act.

This shows survey that New Zealanders want their entertainment to be universal and if contains something offensive it would have been ‘beeped’ out or cut from the TV show or Movie. This helps promote save entertainment.

reference list

Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993


link : http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1993/0094/latest/whole.html?search=ts_act_classification_resel&p=1#dlm312895

The Office of Film & Literature Classification



History of Maori radio broadcasting.


History of Maori radio broadcasting.


Maori is the native language in New Zealand .It is spoken by aborigines / natives living here. I’ll be sharing information about the first radio broadcast in Maori .when was it aired and where this entire channel was broadcast.


Radio broadcasting in Aotearoa New Zealand was going on since 1921 but not air in their native language until 1927. Airini Grenell (of Ngai Tahu ) sang for the listeners  and these performances were recorded by  Pentone Maori Variety Entertainers .  In the following year 1928 on the 6th of February Waitangi day ,an elaborate pageant of Maori history ,songs and stories were broadcasted by all four national radio stations and later were repeated for the international listeners .This known to be New Zealand’s most widely broadcast radio programme for that time .

42950-enz“‘Pioneering Māori broadcaster Airini Grenell broadcasts on the southern South Island non-commercial station 4ZB with John McFarlane (left) and Ian Watkins in the 1930s. She was a familiar and much-loved voice on New Zealand radio for four decades”.


In the same year J.F Montague the Pakeha speaker for the Maori , dedicated a series of programmes what he called the atrocious pronunciations of Maori words. In 1929 the following year of the program Hare hongi also known as Herny Stowell, of Napuhi tribe  took over as the host/presenter of Montague’s program .Various Maori groups were invited to perform on the national network .Maori  Native college choir were also invited to perform alongside other Maori groups .



The regional announcers

In the late 1930s the director of broadcasting, James Shelly appointed four Maori announcers . This meant that the four main cities in New Zealand will have their own radio announcers .The very first person who was employed in 1936 was Lou Paul (Ngati Whatua ) for Auckland .The other three were Kingi Tahiwi (Ngati Raukawa ) in Wellington ,Te Ari Pitama (Ngai Tahu), Christchurch,  and Airini Grenell the pioneer of  Maori  broadcasting in Dunedin .


Which was the first program entirely in Maori language?

It was broadcasted in 1940 the elders Maori persuade the government for this service. It was a daily 15 minutes new update on the 28th Maori Battalions who were overseas campaigning  during the second world war .Wiremu Parker ( Nagati Porou) was the broadcaster at the time who was excellent at using both languages Maori and English  and was widely acknowledged for his skills . He used to read out the listed causalities, latest new on the war and also covered the domestic Maori news.  “Parker vowed never to use a Non –Maori words in his bulletins”. He also broadcasted the return of the Maori Battalion to Wellington on 23th January in 1946. His broadcasting career has spanned over 40 years.


Piripi Walker (right) and Tama Te Huki in the studio of the Wellington Maori language radio station, Te Ūpoko o Te Ika, on its first day of broadcast in 1987.


The first Iwi radio station

In  1970 most of the fluent Moari broadcasters had been replaced by the younger lot who weren’t as fluent. The listeners encouraged the younger broadcasters to speak their language widely and try to improve, it was  a way of reviving  their language .


Which was the first permanent Maori radio station?

In the year 1987 Nga Kaiwhakapumau i te Reo established the te Reo o Te Upoko O Te Ika that ran for two months, May to June. There was a positive feedback from the listeners and the community which led the board to make this station permanent on air. Te Reo O Aoteroa  a new unit for the Radio New Zealand was formed .They were set up to air more of the programmes in Maori and other Pacific languages.

Te Upoko o Te Ika_25 yrs tohu-colour_final_small


Today New Zealand has over 16 local stations and more than 25 radio channels out of which only a hand full get airing time. Apart from The Breeze, Edge, Hits and ZM there are some radio channels that don’t get airtime due to lack of listeners. In today’s date in New Zealand apart from music stations people still tune in to listen to the news and the sports often because it is one the quickest form of pieces of information passed on through air. Exploring the History of New Zealand’s radio history was really interesting .I did agree with some bits as I was reading through some of the articles Eg. When the younger broadcasters  forgot their importance of their own languages and they had to be guided by the elders and the community. Overall I learnt something interesting about New Zealand’s radio broadcasting history.

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PD 1

The technology has evolved over the past’s year and has come up with multiple gadgets to read stuff off .Eg Kindel a table that is a book, our mobile phone, tabs and PC the news channels have started off their own websites which that can update anytime and people with just one click can accesses it all over the globe . I this is advantage or a disadvantage?? To break it down I’ll list some A and D for both print and electronic media.



Number Advantage Disadvantage
1 Papers can be stored and recycled .Can use paper clippings as memories. Even if we are trying to recycle the papers we are spending more money on the production and printing cost might as well sell check tabs to read new on . The print media can’t instantly update news they have to gather reports and the proofread it then send it for printing then deliver it the next day at your doorstep or at the local cafe.
2 Cheaper, and has easy accesses and is available all over the world, and if in a foreign country you can still find your own language newspaper.


You might have to look through a lot of places to get hands on the paper .Instead of connect to the wifi or turn on your data and read the news on the tab.
3 Easy to read if your eyes aren’t suitable to seeing bright screens. People with weak eyes can’t read the font size which is a problem instead of someone reading out to you can just select the audio and listen to the news.
4 Doesn’t need internet. Do not require charging. Backup power banks or a quick stop at the cafe and a portable car charger can be the easy ways to never run out of power.
5 Easy to highlight important stuff and its light weight and requires minimum space and can bend and not break. There are devices that are light weight and easy and slim and easy to carry.






Number Advantage Disadvantage
1 Can be destroyed, can take screens shots and save it. If the backup files and you can lose the shots
2 Screen resolutions in tabs and Smartphone’s are getting better so reading it can be easier. If you drop your gadget it can get damaged and it will cost a lot to repair. If the newspaper gets wet it dirty it’s cheap and probably easy to get without digging into your pockets.
3 Can be charged anywhere car, using a backup power bank and just a quick stop at the cafe and you can charge and get free wifi. Instead of spending so much on a power bank and using the car batteries and keep on taking stops to charge it and carry a charger alone is a pain .Might as well just sit a one place and finish reading and enjoy your coffee or tea .
4 Can travel around but still have access to you News channels and catch the live updates and the live games. Get to learn a new language and can enjoy watching sports live in a different language or just read it on the next day’s newspaper till then do something productive.
5 Saving recycling and manufacturing cost and most importantly saving trees.  today everything thing  are done electronically so why not move ahead and take advantage of the gadgets. Agree with the saving tress and moving along with time things do get expensive we do get the fact that everyone has these fancy gadgets and we have internet to look it up But reading it with no distraction and pop ups that take your eyes off track might as well read something without any pop-ups and  buzzing.



After typing it up and  after some research I feel that I Would still go for the print media because it easy to get ,cheap , has no pop-ups , light weight has multipurpose and more relaxing to read. I don’t like the light on the screen even though Apple have Launched an Ipad Air with a retina screen I’ll still prefer the print media.

Reference list